Vertical Recirculating Deep Water Culture System

Systems model

The following systems model might be useful. It (attempts to) capture everything there is to know about how the system operates. In particular, it identifies all inputs to the operation of the system, all (intended and unintended) outputs of the system, as well as key environmental factors that catalyze or inhibit the successful operation.

Finally, it identifies the activities necessary to successfully operate the system, and when they need to be performed. Details are provided when clicking on the hyperlinks.


  • open air
  • sunshine hours and intensity
  • temperature and weather


  • seeds
  • horticubes
  • nutrients
  • water
  • electricity
Germination Growing Inputs Transfer Outputs


  • produce
  • horticube waste